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Thomas Hart Benton
information courtesy of http://shsmo.org
Senator Thomas Hart Benton was a prominent lawyer and political leader during the first half of the 1800s. During his five terms as a U.S. senator, Benton played a major role in many national debates. He was a strong supporter of the use of hard money and westward expansion. Benton also fought against the extension of slavery into the territories.
Early Years and Education
Thomas Hart Benton Fll length view of Thomas Hart Benton.
[Charles Lanman, Collection, 1826-1869 (C3725), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]
Thomas Hart Benton was born in Hillsborough, North Carolina, on March 14, 1782. He was the first son of Jesse Benton and Ann Gooch. When Thomas was eight years old, his father, a well-respected attorney, died of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted through the air and often settles in the lungs and destroys lung tissue. During the 1800s, tuberculosis killed more people in the United States than any other cause of death. It was a major killer in cities. Because many people in the cities at this time were poor immigrants living in dirty and crowded conditions, tuberculosis became associated with immigration, poverty, city overcrowding, and poor living conditions. In the 1940s an antibiotic was discovered that could successfully treat tuberculosis. Although no longer a major killer in the United States, tuberculosis remains a chief cause of death today in many impoverished nations across the world..
At the age of sixteen, Benton was admitted to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While he studied hard and was elected to the school's Philanthropic Society, Benton soon got into trouble. During a quarrel, Benton came close to shooting another student. A few weeks later, he was accused of stealing money from his roommates and was expelled.
Benton returned home and in 1801 moved with his family to Tennessee. He worked on the family farm, taught at a local school, and studied law. In the summer of 1806, Benton passed the Tennessee bar exam and began practicing law.
Early Political Career and Military Service
In 1809, at the age of twenty-seven, Benton was elected to the Tennessee legislature. During his one term, he led judicial reforms, helped pass legislation that secured the right for slaves to have a trial by jury, and headed the legislative committee on lands. After his term ended, Benton returned to the practice of law.
Andrew Jackson, 1814 Between 1812 and 1815, Jackson fought both the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama and defeated the British at New Orleans.
[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]
During the War of 1812
The War of 1812 was fought by the United States against Great Britain, the British colony in Canada, and Britain's Native American allies and lasted from 1812 until 1815. It was caused by unresolved issues left over from the Revolutionary War. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war on Britain due to the continued British occupation of U.S. territory, the ongoing practice of the British capturing American sailors and forcing them to serve in the Royal Navy against their will, British support of Native Americans who were hostile to American expansion, and British efforts to deny Americans the right to trade freely with European countries, particularly Britain's enemy, France., Benton volunteered for military service and was appointed a colonel in the Tennessee State Militia. He traveled throughout the United States under the direction of Colonel Andrew Jackson, a well-known political figure in Tennessee.
In 1813 the United States launched an invasion of Canada that failed, but U.S. forces managed to obtain important victories over the course of the war. Oliver Hazard Perry led American naval forces to victory at the Battle of Lake Erie and General William Henry Harrison defeated the British and their Native American allies at the Battle of the Thames. The British attacked Washington, DC, and set several government buildings on fire, including the White House and the U.S. Capitol.
The Treaty of Ghent brought the war between the United States and Britain to an end on December 24, 1814. Because news of the treaty had not yet reached troops in the west, the last battle between British and American forces took place at New Orleans, with General Andrew Jackson securing a final victory for the United States.
Benton's two years in the military were a disappointment to him. He never saw combat. In addition, he and his brother Jesse became entangled in a quarrel with the Carroll family and Jackson. The feud ended in a street brawl in Nashville where Benton shot Jackson in the arm. Jackson survived the wound, but the two remained enemies for several years. The quarrel damaged Benton's reputation in Tennessee. After he was discharged from the military, he decided to move west.
A Move to the Missouri Territory
St. Louis, Missouri Engraving showing an early scene of the St. Louis riverfront when steamboats were still the main form of transportation.
[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (024731)]
In the fall of 1815, Benton boarded a riverboat and traveled to St. Louis in the Missouri Territory. He later described himself as an adventurer ready to begin on a new theatre. When Benton arrived in St. Louis, it was a small town with wood and stone buildings lined along three muddy streets. Benton resumed practicing law and soon became involved in the city's business community. At the Bank of St. Louis, Benton met two important men, Charles Gratiot and Rene Chouteau. They introduced him to other important figures in the city, and he quickly became a community leader.
The St. Louis Republic, February 1, 1903 This article describes the duel between Benton and Charles Lucas.
[Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Chronicling America, The St. Louis Republic, February 1, 1903, magazine section, image 50]
While practicing law, Benton often argued cases against Charles Lucas, a competing attorney. During a heated argument in court in 1817, Benton believed Lucas insulted his honor. He challenged Lucas to a duel, and the pair met on Bloody Island This map shows where Bloody Island was located in relation to the City of St. Louis.
Benton tried new ventures after his move to Missouri. In 1818 he founded the St. Louis Enquirer. Benton used his newspaper to launch a political career. He took strong stances on political issues and earned the respect and attention of many Missourians.
Throughout 1819 Benton wrote editorials promoting westward expansion and Missouri statehood.
Senator Benton and Missouri Statehood
United States Capitol, circa 1846 This is what the capitol in Washington, DC would have looked like during Benton’s last term in the U.S. Senate.
[Courtesy of the Library of Congress, John Plumbe, photographer]
In August 1820, as the Missouri Territory inched closer to statehood following the Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 to balance the number of slave states and free states admitted to the United States. Slavery was prohibited in the northern part of the former Louisiana Purchase except within the proposed state of Missouri. It was called the Missouri Compromise because Missouri was involved in the first balancing act. Missouri was admitted as a slave state while Maine was admitted as a free state., Benton was elected to the U.S. Senate, the start of a thirty-year career in that chamber.
Benton quickly established himself as an eloquent and powerful speaker and earned the respect of many fellow senators. Because Missouri was not yet a state, Benton was denied full membership in the Senate when he first arrived. In spite of the 1820 Missouri Compromise, disagreements over slavery and the presence of free blacks in Missouri erupted in Congress. Not until August 10, 1821, was Missouri admitted as the twenty-fourth state.
Benton married Elizabeth McDowell on March 20, 1821, in Virginia. She was the daughter of an old family friend. The couple set up their home in St. Louis and started a family. The first of their six children was born in 1822. Daughter Jessie, Jessie Benton married John C. Fremont in 1841 when she was seventeen years old. She would join him on his western expeditions and was frequently his political partner.
"Old Bullion" in the Senate
When he returned to Washington, DC, Benton plunged back into his job. He attempted to represent a variety of local interests within Missouri such as the fur trade, men who wanted the old Spanish land titles approved, and the lead mining industry. He also introduced legislation that would decrease the sales price of public land the longer it remained unsold.
As the 1824 election approached, Benton became involved in the presidential campaign. He initially supported Henry Clay, a cousin by marriage. After Clay was eliminated from the race, Benton decided to support Andrew Jackson. While he and Jackson had resolved their differences by this time, Benton also recognized Jackson’s popularity in Missouri. Although Jackson lost to John Quincy Adams, Benton helped him win the presidential election four years later.
Benton represented Jackson’s interests on the floor of the Senate. The pair worked tirelessly on banking reforms, and many attribute the success of Jackson’s presidency to Benton. During the 1830s Jackson supported Benton as he fought for hard money
Hard money is currency that gets its value from the costly material of which it is made. Gold and silver coins, for example, are a type of hard money. In contrast, soft money is made of cheap materials, like paper, and its value is assigned by the government that issues it and validated by the public's faith in it. In the early years of the United States, paper money known as Continentals were issued, but their value collapsed during the Revolutionary War, and many Americans lost faith in soft money. Only hard money in the form of gold and silver coins was used as official currency in America for many years after this, but paper bank notes that could be exchanged for a certain amount of hard money were also issued by private and state banks. These notes were often used like a form of currency. From 1791 to 1811 and 1816 to 1841, the Bank of the United States issued notes backed by the U.S. government and exercised significant control over the nation's banking system. Many people opposed this role for the bank. During the 1830s, President Andrew Jackson and his supporters, such as Missouri's longtime U.S. senator, Thomas Hart Benton, fought to destroy the bank and promoted a hard money policy. They restricted the use of bank notes and only allowed hard money to be used in the purchase of government-owned lands. Jackson won his battle against the bank. Its charter was allowed to expire in 1841. While private and state banks continued to issue bank notes intended to be used at the local and state levels, no national paper currency existed in the United States until the Civil War era.in the form of gold and silver coins instead of paper money and bank notes. Benton’s stance on currency earned him the nickname “Old Bullion.”
American Progress This painting by George A. Crofutt shows an allegorical female figure leading pioneers and railroads westward.
[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]
In the 1840s the status of the Oregon Territory became an important issue. Benton did not voice any strong opinions on the matter until May 1846 when he spent three days addressing “The Oregon Question.” He continued to believe in westward expansion, more commonly called Manifest Destiny, and set out to show “the true extent and nature of our territorial claims beyond the Rocky Mountains.” At the end of his final speech, Benton moved to reintroduce a bill to declare the Oregon Territory under U.S. rule. He had first presented the bill in a secret session of Congress in 1828. The area, also claimed by Great Britain, eventually became a U.S. territory in 1848.
Fighting Against Slavery
Thomas Hart Benton letter In 1849 Benton replied to a request from the citizens of Liberty, Missouri, to visit them and talk about the issues of slavery and the Pacific Railroad.
[Clarence W. and Idress Head Alvord Collection, 1759-1962 (C0970), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]
During his years as a senator, Benton became concerned that the issue of slavery would divide the country. He had pushed for Missouri to be admitted as a slave state, viewing the abolition
The goal of the American abolition movement was to end the system of slavery that existed in the United States from its early colonization until the Civil War era. From the late 1770s to the early 1800s, several northern states abolished slavery by passing antislavery laws that called for slaves in those states to be gradually emancipated (freed) over a period of time. From the 1830s onward, the abolition movement grew quickly and began to call for the immediate emancipation of all slaves in America. In the 1850s, tension between people with proslavery views and those favoring abolition dominated American politics. The fight over abolition was one of the main issues leading to the Civil War. Abolition was formally adopted in Missouri in January of 1865. Later that year, slavery was ended in America with the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.of slavery as dangerous to the union and harmful to blacks.
Around 1835 Benton slowly began to change his views. While he did not view slavery as wrong or wish to abolish it completely, he did not want to see it spread into the territories.
The Sad Parting Between Two Old Friends, 1851 This cartoon is a sarcastic depiction of Benton saying goodbye to Senator Foote, whose resolutions on slavery Benton opposed. Benton lost his senate seat due to his change of opinion on the slavery question.
[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]
In 1849 Benton traveled around Missouri delivering speeches on slavery. In Jefferson City, he declared, “My personal sentiments, then, are against the institution of slavery, and against its introduction into places in which it does not exist. If there was no slavery in Missouri today, I should oppose its coming in.”
Benton spent his last session in Congress speaking against slavery. This change in position cost Benton much support, and he lost the 1851 senatorial election.
Many people tried to convince Benton to campaign for president in 1852, but he instead chose to run for the U.S House of Representatives. He served one term but was not reelected. Benton ran for governor in 1856, suffering an embarrassing loss. Both of these defeats were likely due to his changed views on slavery.
Thirty Years’ View Benton spent the last part of his life writing about his years in the U.S. Senate.
[The State Historical Society of Missouri, SHS REF In Case IB446 v. 1]
In 1854 Benton’s wife, Elizabeth, died, leaving him heartbroken. To distract himself from his grief, he undertook a long lecture tour across the U.S. from 1856 to 1857. He gave lectures on slavery, warning listeners of terrible consequences if the North and South did not end their dispute.
After the lecture tour was over, Benton settled into a home in Washington, DC. He devoted the next two years to writing Thirty Years’ View, a commentary on the national political scene during his time as a senator. On April 10, 1858, Benton passed away after a long fight with cancer. Large memorial services were held in both Washington, DC and St. Louis, where Benton was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery.
Thomas Hart Benton This engraving of Thomas Hart Benton shows the distinguished U.S. Senator later in his life.
[Champ and Bennett Champ Clark Papers, 1853-1973, (C0666), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]
Thomas Hart Benton played a major role in shaping Missouri and the United States. He was the most influential Missouri politician during his thirty years as a senator. Benton also had an impact on the westward expansion of the country.
In 1864 the U.S. government asked each state to send statues of two citizens known for their distinguished civil or military service for the National Statuary Hall. Missouri selected Benton and Francis Blair Jr., and their statues are currently on display in the U.S. Capitol. A park in St. Louis was named after Benton in 1866. Two years later a statue of Benton sculpted by Harriet Hosmer was placed at the center of Lafayette Park in St. Louis.